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Prošli brojevi: Rezimei iz broja o Multikulturalizmu - English

(Rezimei na srpskom jeziku)



Alpar Losonc, Cultural Plurality: The Apotheosis Of Difference Or The Practice Of Acceptance


Multiculturalism is to be considered as the manifestation of the immanent tendencies of modernity. The author critically treats the approaches that interprete the subject as the turning to the differences. Following the analysis of Tocqueville, multiculturalism is to be understood in the context of the tensions between sameness and differentiality. According to the author, multiculturalism can be depicted in the light of the liberalism’s answer to the challenge of the new stage of democratisation. The discourse of the multiculturalism points out the punctum caecum of the national state, actually, the structural non-indifference of the national state to the dominant cultural identity. Due to the liberal interpretation of multiculturalism collective type of rights are to be balanced carefully with the individual rights. This achievement implicates the connection between cultural narration and the abstract concept of right. This connection presupposes hermeneutical attainments concerning the opportunity of applying of rights. At the end, taking into account the situation in Serbia, the author makes a difference between the acceptance and recognition.

Key words: Multiculturality, Difference, Liberalism, Tocquille, Recognition, Acceptance.

Slobodan Divjak, Liberalism – Communitarianism –Multiculturalism


In this text, the author strives to demonstrate that the modern multicultural movement is an attempt at critique of liberalism and, hence, at critique of formal-institutional order of the modern world and its social implications. On the one hand, the aim of this critique may be a moderate revision of liberalist teaching which, with regard to its "revisionist" character, strives not to challenge the basic postulates of the liberal teaching. The proponents of so-called moderate multiculturalism present the results of their critical analyses as contributions to supplementation, innovation or broadening of liberalism. Some of them, to safeguard themselves as convincingly as possible from any potential objections of antiliberalism, strive to find foothold for their conceptions in classical liberal theories and resort to re-thinking of liberal tradition and its reinterpretation to this end. On the other hand, the purpose of the mentioned critique, in accordance with the so-called radical multiculturalism, may also be a more radical revision of liberal teaching, or even radical abandonment of liberal teaching through rejection of its basic principles. Representatives of both tendencies, however, find the source for their critique in the empirical evidence, which challenges liberal posits to various extents.

In harmony with his considerations, the author also suggests several basic constitutional requirements for post-Milo{evi} Serbia as a balanced combination of civil and multicultural models.

Key words: Multiculturalism, liberalism, communitarianism

Dusan Pavlovic, The Communitarian Critique Of The Rawlsian Liberalism


The most crucial communitarian objection to the Rawlsian liberalism is that the ground-floor level of Rawls’s theory favors individuated concep tions of the good. This objection was most forecfully put forward by Michael Sandel. The article takes it up and proves it wrong. The second part of the article discusses the same problem from a methodological angle. It is argued that the structure of the argument at the ground-floor level, in order to be successful, must rely on finite but general ideas about justice. In this way, the argument cannot achieve the absolute impartiality, but it can be justified to others who initially do not underwrite liberal ideas on justice.

Key words: Rawls, Political Liberalism, Original Position, Sandel, Justice, Individual

Slavoj Zizek, Multiculturalism, Globalization and the New World Order


An authentic policy is precisely the opposite of its classical definition - it is in effect the art of the impossible. Contrary to that, the omnipresent post-politics today (i.e. neoliberal capitalism) is but the „administration of social issues“, relying on cooperation of technocrats and liberal multiculturalists. Globalization is another name for this advancing post-political logic, which slowly bars access to real universalism. That is why multiculturalism is a view from a global, hollow perspective of Eurocentric indifference and, essentially, contempt of all really Other. Tolerance of this liberal multiculturalism ends on its encounter with the really Other. On the other hand, it makes the way for the interests of Capital in its blindness for antagonisms and struggles within that same Other. In the author's view, the only true answer is politicization, the renouncing of the hypocritical neutrality and joining, the struggles within each particular cultural identity in the name of real universal emancipation.

Key words: Globalization, Multiculturalism, Universal, Capital, Neoliberalism, Enjoyment, Post-Politics, Politicization

Tomislav Zigmanov, Will Kymlycka for the First Time in Serbia


Liberal thinker Will Kymlycka was probably among the first in the world to attempt a complete and theoretically consistent deliberation of the possibility and justification of theoretical foundation of minotiry rights, from the angle of the leading ideological starting positions of the liberal political-philosophical paradigm. However, concrete articulation and efforts to acheive these are most often referred to as the policy of multiculturalism. Kymlycka is, therefore interested in the ways to find, from the vantage point of the liberal political doctrine, the theoretically meaningful and morally justified responses to the complex issues involved in the contextualization of ethno-cultural differences, primarily in the modern societies of the West. We, on our part, wanted to examine whether this was successful and if so in what manner, by analysing the contents of two of his books: Milticultural Citizenship (Liberal Theory of Minority Rights) and Can Liberal Pluralism be Exported? (Western Political Theory and Ethnic Relations in Eastern Europe). The essay, at the same time, inquires into the issue of (non)reception of this discourse in the ongoing liberal discussions in Serbia.

Key words: Multiculturalism, Liberalism, Ethno-Cultural Justice, Minorities, Minority Rights

Miklos Biro, How to Reconcile Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks?


The paper addresses the various aspects of reconciliation among the nations previously engaged in conflict. Reconciliation is viewed on three levels: individual, group and state. It also offers the findings of two surveys the author carried out in 2001 - one in Serbia and the other in Prijedor and Vukovar. The author also discusses the results of a regression analysis revealing of the factors that help or thwart the reconciliation process.

Key words: Reconcilaotion, Conflict, Tolerance, Nation

Ljiljana Gavrilovic, McLuhan and the Dream of the Golden Age of the Plum


This paper is the outcome of the research into the cultural models within the "Serbian" culture and its overall relation towards global culture. The Serbian culture still reveals mythologization of the rural-patriarchal tradition, along with substantial resistance towards others and a reduced ability to grasp the reasons for the existence of the cultural conflict. General cultural education, focused on the Internet as the ideal means of learning about others as well as about us, is the key element in establishing a dialogue, and thereby also understanding in an inter-cultural communication.

Key words: Culture, Inter-cultural Communication, Cultural Conflict, Cyberspace


Djordje Pavicevic, Public sphere


The article has been written as an entry for the Critical Dictionary of Civil Society. In the first part of the paper defining components of the notion of public sphere are examined. Public sphere is related to two social phenomena: a) making deliberate efforts to develop an art of persuasion and to produce systematic spreading of publicity; b) arranging a set of institutions that are establishing public accessibility. Therefore, the definition of the public sphere is ambiguous: a) in the first meaning it is opposed to the secret and refers to the open, and visible, and accessible; b) in the second meaning it is opposed to the private and refers to a conceptual and physical area established by institutions. In each of the two meaning the focus is on the political relevance of the public sphere. The second part of the paper is a brief historical reconstruction of the different conceptions developed over time. In the third part some issues raised in current discussions on the significance and structure of the public sphere are introduced.

Key words: Public/Private Sphere, Public Opinion, Audience/Public, Social Rationality, Power Control, Manipulation

Bosko Telebakovic, Manipulating the Public


This paper considers the concepts of the public, public opinion, propaganda and political marketing. The relation between the public and the individual and mass, issues of privacy and secrecy as well as the relation between freedom, truth and the public are also explored here. The media considerations, the relation between democracy and the public, the problem of world public and a possibility of real public are discussed too.

Key Words: Public Sphere, Lie, Freedom, Marketing

Snjezana Milivojevic, Ideological Work of Media


This article focuses upon ideological nature of media work. Media contribution to social stability and the status quo is identified as their major „ideological effect“. Their everyday activity is production of meaning. They naturalize social reality by casting events in familiar, taken-for-granted, common sense terms. Do media messages represent the world in a very particular way while claiming to present it „objectively“ and „neutrally“? This question guides the analysis of media routines from their „socially defining role“ to formation of „dominant discourse“. It also provides for how „signifying practice“ facilitates the reproduction of the existing order.

Key Words: Ideological Effects of the Media, Semantic Closure, Signifying Practice, Defining Reality, Media Frames, Dominant Discourse.

Marijana Radulovic, Case Study: Religious (In)Tolerance In Pravoslavlje And Glas Koncila (1989-1991)


This paper is a result of research and comparison of religious (in)tolerance shown in articles published in Pravoslavqe, official journal of Serbian Ortodox Church, and Glas Koncila, journal of croatian Catolic Church, in period 1989-1991. The intention was to investigate, using the relevant articles, how did those publications forebode, accompany or (in)directly propagate and initiated (in)tolerance, conflicts and even crimes.

Key Words: Religious (In)tolerance, Religious Journals, Propaganda, Ideology.


Djordje Joncic i Suzana Joncic, Year 1989


The causes and reasons for the bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 should be sought in the foreign policy of politicians in Washington, but also of those in Berlin and London concerning S. Milosevic - his political system and foreign (as well as internal) policy. "Human rights", "sufferings", "humanitarian disaster" in Kosovo are all but a common denominator for the political consensus of Western politicians, which proved sufficient to proclaim an international emergency and start the bombing or, in other words, the toppling of Milosevic and his political system. This text throws some light on the causes and "reasons" existing on the Serbian side, primarily in 1989 when the whole thing started and there were eight of them: 1) foreign and security policy; 2) political system in Belgrade, communism; 3) Milosevic's personal characteristics (and of those close to him); 4) past, history; 5) opposition of that time; 6) editors and journalists; 7) the so-called Serbian intelligentsia; and 8) Milosevic and SPS' voters.

Key Words: Foreign Policy, Milosevic, Yugoslavia, League of Communists, Washington.

Aljosa Mimica, Sieyes’ Revolutionary Concept Of The Nation


Here are presented, analyzed and discussed the basic ideas contained in Abbé Emmanuel Sieyes' text What is the Third Estate? (Qu'est-ce que le tiers état?), published in 1789, justly considered to be one of the most influential pamphlets of all times. In contrast to the »German« (ethnic, i.e. cultural) model of the nation, usually related to Herder's Volksgeist, Sieyes' »rhetorical act« has formulated the French model of the nation as a political community of citizens. In the Third Estate, the national is derived from the social, the nation from the third estate, in brief – the general is derived from the particular. A new type of nation is constructed by Sieyes' discursive/innovative »Copernican turn«. Instead of the previously established formula: nation = (clergy + aristocracy) – third estate, the equation shall henceforth be: nation = third estate – (clergy + aristocracy). At first sight, the formula looks equally exclusive in both cases: the nation is constituted as pars pro toto that excludes »somebody/something« from itself. However, in contrast to the old type of nation which excludes at least one estate, the new type of nation leaves the door open to all individuals who wish to join it as equal and full members. Sieyes' revolutionary nation is thus potentially inclusive. It is also demonstrated how three kinds of discourse used by the Abbé (»discourse of justice«, »discourse of will« and »discourse of reason«), supported by three kinds of argument (socio-economic, political and historical), have been translated into three overturning events (revocation of feudal privileges, constitution of the National Assembly, and proclamation of Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. Sieyes' revolutionary nation, conceptualized as »the body of associates living under a common law and represented by the same legislature«, was transformed during the French Third Republic into Ernest Renan's conception of the »day-to-day contract«. Therefore, Sieyes directly influenced not only the formation of the revolutionary phantasm about citizen’s equality, but he also contributed to the construction of citizen’s identity and citizen’s imaginarium, having left a deep and still recognizable trace in the universal discourse of modern citizenship.

Key words: nation, Revolution, third estate, privilegies, exclusivity/inclusivity.

Ljubdrag Simic, Istrian Vlach - One Warning


Excessively exploited issues of national rights of certain ethnic entities are nowhere in the world finding the answers that cannot be brought into question, or even justifiably criticized. However, one thing is beyond doubt, namely that, especially in the Balkans, mutual relations of various ethnic groups have always been strong, not only in economic and cultural, but also biological terms. The interesting point here is that these facts are first accepted with respect to the presence of the Turks. They are assigned a substantial share in the biological formation of our man, and precisely this approach has no justification because the mountain parts - which were the largest source of popular migrations downwards into the valleys - have not been frequented by the Turks, and neither had they wielded any real power there, if they were true Turks at all. By contrast, we see the disregard of the relation with the Vlachs, the old Balkan, most often Romanized element, and one which, having been autochtonous, must have been the most represented in the racial and ethno-psychological formation of our man.

Key words: Istra, Nation, Toponim, Politics 

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